Artificial intelligence (AI) refers to the assumption of human intelligence in machines that are programmed to think and act like humans. Artificial Intelligence can also be applied to any machine that demonstrates the traits linked with a human mind such as learning and problem-solving. The main feature of artificial intelligence is its ability to perceive the environment and take actions that maximize the chance of successfully achieving a specific goal.
Think of a future where intelligence is not limited to only humans but machines as well. A future where both- humans and machines work together to create a better world, is everyone’s desire. Yet this future is still to be achieved, but artificial intelligence has made a lot of achievements in the present time.
A lot of researches are being conducted on almost all fields of artificial intelligence; therefore, if you are writing a research paper or thesis based on artificial intelligence then there are a lot of topics to focus on. Some of the important topics are discussed below:
Machine Learning refers to the use of Artificial Intelligence to make machines to be able to learn any task from the experience without programming them, particularly about that task. In other words, machines adapt and learn automatically without human interference. Therefore, machine learning is a process of feeding the machines with good quality data and then training them by setting up various machine learning models using different algorithms. The choice of these algorithms depends on the type of data and the kind of task that is to be done.
Deep learning is a part of Machine Learning that learns by following the inner working of the human brain to process the data and make decisions according to that data. In other words, Deep Learning makes the use of artificial neural networks to carry out machine learning. These neural networks are a simplified version of the human brain i.e. these networks are connected in a web-like structure similar to that of the human brain. Deep learning acts as a driving force for most the artificial intelligence applications such as object recognition, language translation, playing computer games, speech, and controlling self-driven cars.
Reinforcement learning concerns with the working of an intelligent agent- an autonomous entity, as to how it takes actions in an environment to maximize the idea of the growing reward. Reinforcement learning focuses on finding a balance between exploration and exploitation. In simple words, the machine learns exactly in the way a human learns. For example- a machine is a student, who learns from his mistakes. Similarly, the machine adapts and learns through trial and error method.
Robotics is one of the most interesting research topics in artificial intelligence as it influences every aspect of work and home life. It is a field that combines computer science and engineering. The sole purpose of robotics is to help and assist humans with the help of machines. Robotics makes machines that can copy human actions i.e. machines that act and think like humans. Though machines can act like humans but how they will think like them? This is where the artificial intelligence plays its role. Artificial intelligence allows these machines to both- think and act like humans and solve problems like them but in less time. These machines can be called ‘humanoid machines’.
Computer vision refers to how computers can gain a high level of information and understanding from digital pictures and videos. The work it does refers to methods of analyzing, acquiring, processing, and understanding of digital pictures. It also extracts high-level of data and information from the real world to form numerical information. In simple words, people upload and view millions of pictures every day on the internet. To make the best use of these images online, it’s important that computers can see and understand them. It is easier for humans to do that but not for computers, therefore, computer vision plays its role here. Computer vision makes the use of artificial intelligence to gather the information from these digital images and videos. This information or data can be anything like, object detection, group various images together, etc.
Natural Language Processing
Natural language processing is a part of artificial intelligence that concerns with the interactions between the computers and human language. In other words, it is the process to program the computers in a way to analyzes large amounts of natural language data. For example- on a web page, customer services are provided by an automated online assistant. Here the computer understands the natural language of humans and responds accordingly. Therefore, natural language processing makes it easier for the computers to read the text, hear speech, interpret it, measure sentiments and then determine the important parts. Natural language application is used in market intelligence, hiring, and recruitment, text summarization, survey analysis, etc.
Internet of Things
Internet of Things is a vision in which the internet expands itself into the real world and seizes everyday objects. It is a complex network of things connected and it shares data and information. Where artificial intelligence deals with the creation of systems that can learn to do human tasks using their experience and without any human interference, the Internet of Things, on the other hand, is a network of different devices that are connected over the internet to collect and exchange data with each other. These devices can be sensors, software, or other technologies.